Module 3 of 4
In Progress

Module 3: Threats in the cyber world


This module includes an overview of the threats and risks that can occuring the online world. It provides a good insight into the history of online attacks and frauds, along with a detailed explanation of contemporary threats in an evolved, and rapidly changing digital environment.

Moreover, this module provides useful tips and important knowledge regarding personal digital hygiene, which creates the safety and security culture one must have, in order to avoid any cyber-attacks that can be harmful in many ways. This module provides important knowledge, useful tips, and examples, to cultivate the awareness of all kinds of cyber threats.

Specifically, this module is comprised of three (3) units. Firstly, Unit 1, which is the face-to-face guided learning unit, provides a brief history of cyber threats and an overview of the status of cybersecurity threats. Then, the discussion focuses on the different types of cyber threats that can be found online. Subsequently, Unit 2 which is the self-directed unit, is built around the provision of tips users can use to ensure their personal security online.  Specifically, this module introduces and discusses the personal digital hygiene routine which is based on digital practices users can adopt for minimising their encounter of cyber risks.  Lastly, this module concludes with Unit 3 which encourages learners to reflect on their learning through their engagement with the Reflective Questions included in the unit.



By the end of this module, participants should be able to achieve the following learning outcomes:

Time schedule

Time necessary for: F2F/guided learning: 1,5 hours.

Learning content (self-directed learning): 0,5 hours.

Reflection questions: 15 minutes.

Useful References And Resources

Bamrungchok, D. (n.d.). Digital Hygiene 101: How to practice digital safety and security.  Retrieved 2 June, 2022, from

Brooks, R. (2020).How to Prevent Malware Attacks: 10 Security Tips.  Retrieved 1 June 2022, from

Cipher. (n.d.). 10 Personal Cyber Security Tips — #CyberAware.  Retrieved 1 June 2022, from

CIS. (Centre for Internet Security). (n.d.). Election Security Spotlight – Password Attacks.  Retrieved 5 June 2022, from,expedites%20cracking%20or%20guessing%20passwords.

Cisco. (2022). What is Malware? - Definition and Examples. Retrieved 28 September 2022, from

Commonwealth of Massachusetts. (n.d.). Know the types of cyber threats.  Retrieved 5 May 2022, from

European Parliament. (2022). Cybersecurity: main and emerging threats in 2021 (infographic). Retrieved 15 May 2022, from

FIREEYE. (n.d.). What is a Zero-Day Exploit? Zero-day exploit: an advanced cyber attack defined. Retrieved 15 May 2022, from

Forcepoint. (n.d.). What is Threat Intelligence? Threat Intelligence Defined and Explored. Retrieved 29 May 2022, from

Forrester, N. (2021). A brief history of cyber-threats — from 2000 to 2020. Retrieved 17 May 2022, from

FRAUDWATCH. (n.d.). Cyber Security 101: The-basics of social media threats. Retrieved 28 May 2022, from

Imperva. (n.d.). Cyber Security Solutions. Retrieved 17 May 2022, from

Imperva. (n.d.). Man in the middle (MITM) attack. Retrieved 18 May 2022, from

Imperva. (n.d.). Ransomware. Retrieved 11 May 2022, from,unlock%20and%20decrypt%20the%20data

Imperva. (n.d.). Social Engineering. Retrieved 2 June 2022, from,or%20giving%20away%20sensitive%20information

Jithukrishnan. (2022). Top 10 password policies. Retrieved 3 June 2022, from

Karperksy. (n.d.). Emotet: How to best protect yourself from the Trojan. Retrieved 1 June 2022, from

Kirsten, S. (n.d.). Cross Site Scripting (XSS), OWASP. Retrieved 25 May 2022, from

Kost, E. (2022). What is Digital Risk? Definition and Protection Tactics for 2022. Retrieved 2 June 2022, from

Morgan, C. (2019). Cybersecurity CEO: The History Of Cybercrime, From 1834 To Present: Early hacking incidents were a glimpse of the future. Retrieved 24 May 2022, from

Norton. (n.d.). 11 social media threats and scams to watch out for. Retrieved 16 May 2022, from

Paloalto Networks. (n.d.). What is a denial of service attack (DoS)?. Retrieved 17 May 2022, from,information%20that%20triggers%20a%20crash

Recorded Future. (n.d.). What Is Threat Intelligence?. Retrieved 5 May 2022, from

Techopedia. (2022). What is Likejacking? - Definition from Techopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2022, from

TestMatick. (2018). THIRD-PARTY AUTHENTICATION. Retrieved 12 May 2022, from,by%20using%20their%20media%20accounts

UND (University of North Dakota). (n.d.). 7 Types of Cyber Security Threats.  Retrieved 28 April 2022, from

VMware. (n.d.). Remote Work Security. Retrieved 11 May 2022, from

W3Schools. (n.d.). SQL Injection. Retrieved 18 May 2022, from